- I./məˈkwɒri/ (say muh'kworee)
1. Elizabeth Henrietta (born Elizabeth Henrietta Campbell), 1778–1835, Scottish wife of Lachlan; her given and maiden names feature in many Australian geographical landmarks.
2. Lachlan, 1762–1824, Scottish soldier and governor of NSW 1810–21; his term of office notable for his encouragement of public works programs, further inland exploration, and creation of new towns as well as humanitarian policies towards convicts.
After a military career of more than 30 years, much of it in India, Lachlan Macquarie arrived in NSW as the colony's first military governor. He was able to draw on his experience as a staff officer in the raising and organising of colonial revenue; measures in this area included the introduction of coinage (1813) and the establishment of the colony's first bank (1817). Macquarie encouraged exploration to expand the pastoral land available and was responsible for a program of public works that included new barracks, roads, bridges, a hospital and five planned towns built out of reach of floodwaters along the Hawkesbury River. During his governorship the population grew from 11 590 to 38 778; sheep multiplied from 26 000 to 290 000; and cattle from 12 500 to 103 000; and the land under tillage increased from 3000 to 13 000 ha. The feature of his administration that Macquarie regarded as most meritorious was his emancipist policy. He insisted that on the expiry or remission of their sentences convicts, provided they were well behaved, should enjoy all the rights of free men. This policy led to divisions in society and united Macquarie's opponents in both Sydney and London. Complaints to England resulted in the dispatch to NSW in 1819 of JT Bigge to inquire into the affairs of the colony. Bigge's report was critical of Macquarie, in particular his spending on public works. Macquarie's resignation was accepted in 1821 and in 1822 he sailed for England, where he battled to gain a pension and defend himself against the claims in Bigge's report.II./məˈkwɒri/ (say muh'kworee)
Lake, a coastal lake extending from 90 km north of Sydney to the Newcastle urban area; its surrounding townships form the city of Lake Macquarie; popular tourist area.
Australian English dictionary. 2014.